我的眼睛看世界

2011年06月20日

对于戏剧不是艺术,演员不是艺术家,其实可以再多说几句

Filed under: 文化 — gcd0318 @ 01:22

我在看许悦小时候的画时还听许老板说,那些画当年是很受赏识的。但相比较而言,我还是更倾向于许老太爷的说法:那些都是小孩子在学大人样而已
呵呵,小孩的模仿能力总是超强的,但这恰是不值得提倡的。书画这东西,原本就是我手写我心的事,技巧训练的目的,也只不过是让心手能够对应起来,有好的想法时,手能够跟得上,把它描绘出来。这就有点像是宋人学诗,喜欢迎合酬答,但可千万别以为这就是他们的诗歌本身,这也只不过是在训练一种描写的能力,让他们熟悉这些技巧,能够在心灵有需要的时候,可以顺畅的表达出来。就比方,篮球运动员也要做力量训练,练田径,那不是让他们为了跑而跑,而是提高奔跑能力,一如定位投篮,那也不是实用的,比赛时定位投篮的机会只占不到一半,这种训练其实也让他们的四肢身体适应起这种姿势和动作,只要一拿到球,脑子里一想到投篮,肌肉就会立刻到位,达到必要的紧张状态,又或者中小学生练习各种数学计算的技巧,初学须生者模仿十八张半,也只不过是为了以后需要的时候,可以运用的得心应手,而并非这些就是数学或者京剧,如此而已。临摹作为一种笔法训练,其实也是这样,是在练习各种表达的方式,制造砖头瓦片,而这还远远不是大厦本身。得心应手才是目的,心有所得,手有所应
我记得当初我评价张贡赫,也是类似的理由:他在台上,那就好象是个9岁的小老头,而不像是个9岁的孩子在说相声。这么看来,像京剧里涌现的那么多神童,比如远的李少春,近的王陶阳,其实就更好解释了:“表演”这个行为本身,就不是在表达自我,而就是在模拟他人。满台的虚富贵假姻缘,人在台上,就有点(而不是全部,区分清楚这一点非常重要)不是自己了。那么,儿童的超强模仿能力,一定会成为他们成功的助推力,再加上儿童嗓音的自然高亮,观众们对童星的追捧,神话传奇是很好制造得出来的。所以也甚至可以说,伤仲永的故事,其实并不见得是个悲剧,而是自然使然,甚至可以说,后来的那个写诗不如小时候,乃至终于“泯然众人”的状态,才是方仲永自己的本色,而小的时候写的那些“以养父母收族为意”的诗,其实都不是他这个年纪所能想得到的东西,他也只不过就是在学大人说话而已,所以其实,也是一种“模仿”。而且后来,由于后来的“父利其然日扳仲永环谒于邑人”,他这个“模仿”,于是也便真的成了“表演”,那满纸的话,只怕就更没有他自己的思想了
话说到这,就自然的回到了诸如汉朝的司马相如,唐朝翰林待诏等等文人,他们所写的,其实也都不是他们自己的思想,而是别人的希望。所以娘娘和皇帝关系好,他们要写“云想衣裳花想容”,皇帝和娘娘关系不好,他们又要写“忽寝寐而梦想兮”(一说此文乃是后人伪托,暂且不论)。所以汉朝时期对这些文人有一句“俳优畜之”的评价,就当然不只是说这些人和演员被同等对待,被当成了玩物,而顺理成章的还可以解释为,他们所做的,也恰是和演员一样的事情而已。当然了,也有人很重视自我感受的,比如李白,觉得这活干着没意思,不玩了。呵呵,所以说,李白才是大艺术家,他知道艺术家应该是抒发自己的情怀,而不是当别人的喉舌——当然了,李白也是个自视太高,甚至还有点自恋的人,这个以前聊《论衡》的时候就说过很多了,此处不论——其实这样的文章也不好写,李商隐的很多代笔诗就给我们看到了样子,里面的技巧性,以及作者的想象力,都是门槛,阻挡了无数想要分一杯羹者
代笔代答,就表明所写的不是作者的思想和体验(否则就是假托之作,另是一类了),于是就要靠想象力去揣测被代者的思想和情境,然后以文字来再现。这就有些类似试帖诗,而和情动于中而形与外的歌咏感叹手舞足蹈完全不一样,纯粹是为了表达而表达,所以这种文章,只能看到作者的想象力和写文章的技巧,而对作者的情感,却难以(但也还不是彻底不可能,试帖诗就比较容易)触及。古人有大量的这类作品,除了“赋得”之类,凡是标题里有“代”的,基本上都是代答代笔之作。甚至还有些作品是以拟物的方式来写,虽然在标题里没有这些标志,但也依然是代笔之作。这类作品,有些含有寄托的意味,但有些则未必,它们不必反映个人生活或者现实遭遇的,而仅仅是改变一下身段,学一学别人说话而已
按传统的知人论世的方式来看这些作品,一般就看不出个就里,因为这些作品根本写的就不是作者对现实生活的反应,而是像袁枚所谓的那样,类似是在演戏,假设“我”就是某人,“我”遇到了某个环境,“我”当如何如之何,用别人的口吻,说别人的话
应当说,这个传统在唐朝已经很流行了,除了李商隐,唐传奇中也有很多故事,荒诞得很,一望而知不可能是曾经发生过的,但却是第一人称来叙述,作者讲的信誓旦旦,读者却未必以为有这回事。之后的比如韩愈王安石的某些戏谑文字,则又是一类继承与开创
这依然可以回到我所谓的“戏剧不是艺术,演员不是艺术家”上去
那么就还回到许悦的话题上来吧;自从她几年前开始复习练功,试图找回昔日的水平开始起,一直到如今,我很欣喜的看到了她的变化,这次得到的她的最新作品里,有几张诗配画非常的精彩,也可以看出是她内心的真实写照,实在可喜可贺
许悦是不看戏的,偶尔学了几句,也不过是凑个趣而已,但是她写字画画,而且多少碰过一些篆刻,再加上家庭的环境,也算是浸润在旧学氛围里长大的孩子了。我曾与她戏谈说,民国帮闲四门基本功:一笔好字,两句二黄,三口烧酒,四圈麻将,我俩加起来,恰可凑个完整。呵呵,玩笑而已,但是这四者之间,其实大可相通(老朽主张物极必似,吾道一以贯之,一切都相通也未尝不可)。也有人说,看懂了中国戏,就算是看懂了中国文化。呵呵,不知道这说法有什么所指,但就我看来,其实传统中国戏,也确实可以和很多东西牵扯得起来
写字应当和唱戏似的,需要内容和形式上的一致,也就是我之前说过的,写诸如“还我河山”这样磅礴气势的词句,应当用雄浑有力的笔法,唱“见坟台”这种凄凉悲伤的曲调,也不能使“隔岸响如雷”的嗓音。但其实也有例外的,比方李和曾的碰碑,那就是生生的唱出了另一股味道,虽然我也知道这和剧情不合,但是依然还很喜欢
呵呵,没办法,知而不行,也是人间的常态,说到做不到的,又不是我一个人

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