我的眼睛看世界

2010年09月6日

代帝答僧

Filed under: 文化 — gcd0318 @ 17:36
代答代笔,本来是古代的一种特有的写作风格,甚至足以形成一种文体,就是作者模拟别人的口吻去写东西,写的却不是作者的思想和体验。比如李商隐的很多诗歌,模仿一些草木,或者怨妇吟等(而比如很多自以为怀才不遇的文人模拟美人香草的文章,也会被人解成代言文章,这却是不对的,这是假托,不一样)。老朽偶然读到一段僧慧远传,一时胡闹之心大起,便也来一段代帝答僧
周武帝历来是“三武一宗”中受诟病最深的一位,因为他的灭佛运动,持续时间虽然不是最长(也不过4年左右而已),但是贯彻的却最坚决(为了让佛教徒闭嘴,宁可连道教都一起灭掉)。但是其中,却出了个僧人慧远与之辩论,似乎慧远多少占到了点嘴头上的便宜,但是最后也只得一句“你早晚得下地狱”来给自己收场——毕竟,佛还是要灭的
其实依老朽看来,慧远的辩词,实在是多为狡赖之语,大略周武帝老实孩子,呵呵,没见过这阵仗,故而也没占到什么便宜。毕竟,佛家之人,于嘴官司上,是出了名的擅长,很可能其水平还要高于先秦的那些游说之士,而君王们,则由于很少需要靠理论来说服别人,因此于这门功课上,甚少修为,这才屡屡落败吧,毕竟,圣人教诲,巧言令色鲜以仁,嘴皮子太涮的,往往都不是什么好东西
君王尊贵,金口玉言,自然是不屑于僧人多废口舌,老夫恰闲而无事,不妨代帝答僧,以为戏言耳——毕竟,圣人也承认,玩笑俳戏有它的好处,诗经里还说,爱开玩笑的人不会是坏人嘛
僧问:陛下统临大域,得一居尊,随俗致词宪章三教。诏云:真佛无像。诚如天旨,但耳目生灵,赖经闻佛,藉像表真,今若废之,无以兴敬
帝答:虚空真佛咸自知之,未假经像
代答:僧既知真佛无像,何意反做无端之像,妄为虚妄之形,以求兴敬?真佛无像,则像非真佛,何来藉像表真?对像兴敬,是敬佛邪?是敬像邪?
僧问:汉明已前经像未至,此土含生何故不知虚空真佛?
帝无答
代答:是益可见众生乃敬像耳,非敬佛也
僧问:若不藉经教自知有法者,三皇已前未有文字,人应自知五常等法,当时诸人何为但识其母不识其父,同于禽兽?
帝无答
代答:三皇以前非独无经教,乃无法也,至三皇而肇始文字,乃有教化。无法而何谈经,何谈教
僧问:若以形像无情,事之无福故须废者,国家七庙之像岂是有情而妄相尊事?
帝答:佛经外国之法,此国不须,废而不用。七庙上代所立,朕亦不以为是,将同废之
代答:先祖有像而佛无像,佛祖亦不倡对像起敬,何以信众逆佛之意
僧问:若以外国之经非此用者,仲尼所说出自鲁国秦晋之地,亦应废而不行。又以七庙为非将欲废者,则是不尊祖考。祖考不尊则昭穆失序,昭穆失序则五经无用,前存儒教其义安在?若尔则三教同废,将何治国?
帝答:鲁邦之与秦晋封域乃殊,莫非王者一化,故不类佛经
代答:秦晋齐鲁皆尊王化,乃周王近臣子弟后裔,本为一系。立七庙而尊祖考,而佛非祖考,故不对像兴敬。佛家毁伤须发,亦是不孝,然则孝乃儒教之义,佛家人不得置喙
僧问:若以秦鲁同遵一化,经教通行者,震旦之与天竺国界虽殊,莫不同在阎浮。四海之内,轮王一化,何不同遵佛经而今独废?
帝无答
代答:震旦天竺同在四海以内,何不同尊孔孟?若天竺不可尊儒,震旦何需尊佛教化?
僧问:诏云:退僧还家崇孝养者。孔经亦云:立身行道以显父母,即是孝行。何必还家?
帝答:父母恩重交资色养,弃亲向疏未成至孝
代答:佛家不婚不嗣,是为大不孝
僧问:若如是言,陛下左右皆有二亲,何不放之,乃使长役五年不见父母?
帝答:朕亦依番上下得归侍奉
代答:役于朕左右而得财帛奉养二亲,是为孝敬当有之义
僧问:佛亦听僧冬夏随缘修道,春秋归家侍养,故目连乞食饷母,如来担棺临葬,此理大通,未可独废
帝无答
代答:目连救母非天竺佛家典故,不足为据。僧可有子嗣乎?僧无子嗣,则老而何依?赖它僧,则奈它僧归家侍养之时何
僧问:陛下今恃王力自在破灭三宝,是邪见人,阿鼻地狱不简贵贱,陛下何得不怖?
帝答:但令百姓得乐,朕亦不辞地狱诸苦
代答:释尊亦有下地狱之心,地狱不简贵贱,信然
僧问:陛下以邪法化人,现种苦业,当共陛下同趣阿鼻,何处有乐可得?
帝答:僧等且还,有司录取论僧姓字
代答:不言事理而口出无端,此诚佛家人也
其实我对这个慧远的反感由来日久,丫就是个投机分子,在佛家名气比较大,也仅仅是因为他做了大量和其他思想体系——尤其现实社会——对抗的事情而已。就比如他的“袈裟非朝宗之服,钵盂非廊庙之器,沙门尘外之人,不应致敬王者”,既然服装器皿和人都不是这个世界里的,那就该属于哪去哪,别在这个世界里混,更说明要大力提倡灭佛
应当说,以现实政治的需求来看,灭佛是必要的,应该的,但是它确实也对思想文化领域产生了副作用。只是,几次灭佛运动,未必对思想文化领域都是负面的影响,就比如会昌法难,虽然一举而摧毁了当时哲学所依凭的三教基础,让唐朝那种开拓进取昂扬灿烂的思潮为之一断,但是却引发了新的一轮倾向悲凉婉转和淡雅萧瑟的审美情趣,使宋朝理性的回归有了可能
最后,我也确实很怀疑这些宗教的目的。按照潘光旦教授的说法,基督教佛教这些宗教,对教徒(而不是普通的信众)要求很高,无论是品德还是才能都要达到一定的层次,但是同时,又不许这些人有后代,让优秀的基因无法遗传,让这些能为儿童提供良好的成长环境的人不能有子女,那么低劣的基因就必然得到了更多的繁殖机会,能够成长在良好环境里的儿童也相对减少,这在长期看来,是要降低社会水平和人种质量的
此言极其有理
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